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See the turgo turbine generator
Author: source: date: 2018-11-27 13:47:02
A type of inclined jet turbine(Turgo impulse turbine) impact turbine. It is mainly composed of a nozzle and a runner. The runner consists of an outer rim, an inner hub and a number of single bowl-shaped buckets fixed by the question. The nozzle jet slanted the blade on the front side of the runner at an angle of 22.5° and then flowed out from the back. The structure is simple, the cost is low, but the efficiency is low. Only for small power stations. Applicable head is 20~100 m.
The turgo hydraulic generator is composed of a manual speed regulating valve (some are needles), a nozzle, a runner, a casing, a bearing and a shaft seal.
The nozzle direction of the turbulent turbine is at an angle (typically 22.5°) to the plane of rotation of the runner, and the jet impinges on the impeller obliquely.The nozzle is mounted behind the pressure water pipe manual speed control valve. The nozzle is a conical tube. As the cross-sectional area of the conical tube becomes smaller, the water flow gradually accelerates, forming a high-speed jet at the nozzle outlet, and impacting the rotor.
In order to adjust the flow rate and control the output of the unit, the unit operates well and has high efficiency. Some micro-units are regulated with gate valves.
The runner is the heart of the turbine. The larger capacity of the slanting runner has complex blades and a streamlined section (such as the airfoil of the aircraft). The manufacturing process requires high requirements. For the miniature slanting wheel, in order to simplify the production process and reduce the cost, a hemispherical blade is formed. The blades of the runner are stamped out on a punch with a steel plate with a thickness of 2 mm and trimmed by trimming. An impeller generally consists of 18 to 22 blades. The blade is assembled and welded to form a runner, and the entire manufacturing process is simple.
The hemispherical and airfoil blade runners are illustrated by the operation of the power station. The hemispherical rotor is relatively small compared to the airfoil runner, and the performance of the hemisphere runner is slightly lower than that of the airfoil runner.
The bearing is a device that supports the weight and axial thrust of the rotating part of the hydro-generator and the radial force when rotating. Microturbines typically have a thrust roller bearing and a single row radial ball bearing.
The casing is a bracket for the miniature hydro-generator set, and the casing is fixed to the machine pier.
Basic working principle editing:
When the slanting turbine is working, the water flows from the pressure water pipe through the nozzle to form a high-speed jet, and the jet and the runner plane impact the rotor blade in a 22.5° direction. After the work is done, the water flows out from the water outlet of the vanes and drains along the tail water channel to the downstream.
In order to ensure free flow of the jet, the turbine runner must be installed above the water level of the tailrace, and the runner should be no less than 0.5m from the water level of the tailrace.
1. Water energy is converted into mechanical energy
A hydraulic turbine is a machine that converts water energy into mechanical energy. The parameters describing the water energy are head (H meters) and flow rate (Q meters 3 / sec). The operating parameters describing the turbine are head (H meters), flow rate (Q meters 3 / sec), power (N kW), speed (n rev / min) and efficiency (η%).
The water flow hits the vane, and the vane changes the direction of the water flow, that is, the force of the vane feed water. According to the law of action reaction, the water flow gives a reaction force to the vane. This causes the vanes to rotate around the axis, which drives the generator or other processing machinery. This is the process by which water can be converted into mechanical energy.
2. Factors affecting turbine output power
The rated power of a turbine is the shaft power output by the turbine at the rated head and rated flow. When the actual working head of the turbine is smaller than the rated head proposed by the turbine manufacturer, although the inlet valve is fully open, the turbine power is still less than the rated power, and the generator cannot carry the rated load. At this time, if the power load of the generator with the nameplate output is insufficient, the voltage is insufficient, the cycle drops, the motor cannot be started, and the electric lamp is red. The actual output of the turbine cannot reach the nameplate output. In another case, the valve opening is insufficient, or the water inlet is clogged, which affects the water intake. Similarly, the turbine cannot produce sufficient power.
In addition to the close relationship between the head size and the flow rate, the turbine output power is also related to the efficiency of the turbine. In the process of converting the energy of the water into mechanical energy, the flow and the head are depleted. The flow of water in the flow of the runner has impact and friction loss, so that the output mechanical energy of the turbine is less than the water energy. The ratio of turbine shaft output power to input turbine water energy (power) is called turbine efficiency.
1. Horizontal unit has the advantages of simple structure,convenient repair,reduce the plant height,advantages in reducing excavation depth.
2. The vertical unit with plant plane size small,a runner can be provided with a plurality of nozzles,(at most can be installed six nozzles),high specific speed,the same size as units of capacity is relatively small,light weight and so on.
The main components of the turgo turbine are similar to those of the water bucket. There are also nozzles and working wheels with water buckets. The different places have the following points:
1. The position of the nozzle is not in the same plane as the working wheel, but is at an angle to the plane, and the angle is called the oblique angle.
2. The water bucket is scooped, and the jet flows from one side of the water bucket to the other side, with axial force.
3. The outer ring of the water bucket has an outer ring, which increases the blade strength and reduces part of the windage loss.
The slanting turbine has a unique application range. In the range of n=30~70, the Francis turbine is not suitable. The single nozzle hopper can not reach the specific speed, and the double-click turbine is too low.