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Hydropower station working principle
Author: source: date: 2019-02-27 09:50:31
In the world-wide, the power provided by hydropower stations accounts for 24% of the world's electricity consumption, it provides electricity to more than one billion people. According to data provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, hydropower stations in the world output a total of 675,000 MW of electricity, this is equivalent to the energy of 3.6 billion barrels of crude oil. We can understand how water flowing to the lower part produces electricity, and understand the water cycle that forms the water that is vital to hydropower.
When you see the river flowing, you may have a hard time imagining the enormous energy that he carries. If you have played rafting, then you can feel a little bit of the power of the river. The speed of torrents in drifting is generated by a river carrying a large amount of water flowing downstream and passing through a narrow passage. When the river is squeezed into this opening, its flow rate will be faster. Floods are another example of the enormous energy contained in large amounts of water.
The hydropower station controls the energy of the water, these energies are converted into electrical energy using simple mechanical manipulation. Hydropower stations are actually based on a very simple principle——Water flows through the dam, turning the turbine, the turbine drives the generator to generate electricity.
Dam: Most hydropower stations rely on dams to block water, form a huge reservoir. Such reservoirs are often used as leisure playgrounds.
Water intake: Open the gate on the dam, water passes under the action of gravity through a channel called a tunnel. It directs the water flow to the turbine, water flow rises as it flows through the waterway.
Turbine: The water flow impacts and turns the huge blades of the turbine, the turbine is connected to the generator located above it via the drive shaft. The most common turbine in a hydropower station is a Francis turbine, it looks like a large plate with curved blades. The turbine can weigh up to 172 tons, it can rotate at 90 rpm.
Generator: When the turbine blade rotates, a series of magnets in the generator also rotate together, a huge magnet rotates through the copper coil, the electrons are moved to generate alternating current (AC).
Transformer: the transformer in the substation converts the alternating current into a higher voltage current.
Power line: Each power station has four output wires: it includes three-phase power generated at the same time, plus one of their three shared neutral or ground lines.
Tail water: The used water is re-introduced into the downstream river through a channel called the tail channel.
These are the necessary equipment for any hydropower station.
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