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Detailed explanation of the water inlet of the hydropower station
Author: source: date: 2019-11-23 10:18:43
General hydropower stations have the following basic requirements for influent buildings:
(1) To have sufficient water intake capacity, it is guaranteed to introduce the necessary flow rate at any working water level.
(2) The water quality should meet the requirements, and the wood allows harmful sediment, ice and various dirt to enter the water inlet.
(3) The head loss is small. The water flow can smoothly enter the water inlet and control the flow rate within a certain range.
(4) The flow can be controlled to facilitate maintenance and emergency shutdown of the water intake system.
(5) It must have sufficient strength, rigidity and stability, simple structure, convenient construction, beautiful appearance, low cost and easy operation, maintenance and maintenance.
The water inlet of a hydropower station is divided into two types: pressurized and non-pressure.
1. Pressure Inlet
The pressurized water inlet is characterized in that the water inlet is located at a certain depth below the dead water level of the reservoir(refers to the lowest water level that allows the reservoir to fall under normal use. It was once called design low water level). Introducing deep water, the water flow has a pressure flow, It is often connected to a pressurized diversion tunnel or a pressure pipeline, It is suitable for taking water from reservoirs with large changes in water level. Pressurized water inlets are also called deep inlets or submersible inlets. Most of the inlets of pressurized diversion hydropower stations and post-dam hydropower stations fall into this category.
2. No pressure water inlet
It is characterized by taking the surface water of a river or a reservoir, the water flow at the inlet has a free water surface, and the water flow is a non-pressure flow, It is generally followed by a pressureless diversion building, suitable for taking water from reservoirs that have little change in natural rivers or water levels. The inlet of the pressureless diversion hydropower station is generally a pressureless inlet. It is generally located on the concave bank of the river and consists of intake gates, sluice gates, retaining dams and grit chambers.
The water inlet building is generally composed of a bell mouth, a trash rack, an inspection gate and a work gate (which may also be located at the exit), a flat pressure pipe, a vent hole and a gradual section.
Influent buildings include an inlet section, a gate section and a transition section.The upper structure of the water inlet is provided with a hoist and a cleaning device. The gate chamber is generally made into a rectangle, In order to smooth the water flow, it is necessary to set a transition section with a gradually changing section. The construction of the gradual section is complicated and should not be too long, generally 1.5 to 2.0 times the diameter of the hole.